Trends for Yeast Extracts in its Use as a Seasoning and Flavoring in the US and European Markets

Posted on August 24, 2010 by markyu777

Trends for Yeast Extracts in its Use as a Seasoning and Flavoring in the US and European Markets. 酵母抽提物在欧美调味品中应用趋势
Tilak Nagodawithana PhD Esteekay Associates Inc. Milwaukee, WI 53217 USA
1. History历史
Flavor is one of the most important attributes governing the selection of foods we eat. Early civilizations have relied upon their good sense and experience to develop and improve their food quality, which in the process, probably led to the development of their traditional foods. The empirical knowledge they acquired was subsequently transmitted throughout the ages to succeeding civilizations. Today, with this know-how, combined with new technology on the skillful use of ingredients in the art of cooking, fascination with food has become a basic human experience to many. 味道是我们选择吃的食物时考虑到最重要的一个属性。早期文明都依赖于他们的良好的感觉和经验来改善提高食品质量,在这个过程中,可能引导了他们的传统食品的进步。他们获得的经验知识,随着时间传递到各个成功的文明里。今天,这个窍门,即结合了新技术从而熟练使用各种添加剂的食物烹饪艺术,已成为了许多人的基本技能。
In most cases, foods require additional flavorings during or after processing to make them more palatable. The significance of a very familiar taste like that of common salt is well known to both food processors as well as to the consumer. Many other flavorings are now being marketed to improve the flavor characteristics, particularly of convenience foods. 许多情况下,食物需要外加调味料以使它们更加美味。常见的食盐就是重要的食品工业和大众所知的调味料。许多市售的其他调味料也能够改善食物的风味特征,特别是对于方便食品。
Among the earliest savory foods, the best known fermented savory flavoring or seasoning that has a long history in the Orient is soy sauce. Although the information relating to this product is fragmentary, the authentic records of the Chinese using soy sauce as a flavoring agent may date back approximately 3,000 years (Prinsen-Geerligs, 1896). Today, without doubt, the discovery of soy sauce is rated one of the outstanding achievements made by man in the area of food science. The popularity of soy sauce as a savory flavoring has clearly soared in the Western world during the last few decades. 在最早的调味食品中,最知名的发酵调味品是酱油,它在东方有着悠久的历史。尽管最初的信息是零散的,但是在中国,专业的使用酱油的记录大约是3000年前。如今,毫无疑问的是,酱油的发明是人类食品科学上杰出的成果。酱油在西方使用是最近几十年的事情。
In 1886, Julius Maggi, (Heer, 1991) a pioneer in the food industry broke new ground by developing rapid-cooking dehydrated soups. One of the key ingredients he utilized in his formulation was hydrolyzed plant protein. These hydrolysates yielded the meaty flavoring necessary to make these rapid-cooking soups, meaty and so enticing. This eventually evolved into an important business segment in many parts of the world. 1886年,Julius Maggi先生,一位食品工业的先驱者, 开垦了一块地来生产快餐汤料。他在配方中使用的关键原料之一就是水解植物蛋白。这类水解物提供了肉的风味使汤料很诱人。最后在世界各地都发展了这类很重要的工业。
During the last few decades, yeast extracts have become popular in part due to their usefulness as a natural flavoring agent and a flavor enhancer as well as for its cost effectiveness compared to other flavoring agents on the basis of equivalent flavor intensity. 在最近几十年,酵母抽提物的使用成为流行,不仅因为它相对于其他同等效力的风味料具有成本优势,而且因为它能作为天然风味剂或者风味强化剂。
2、Characteristics of Yeast Extracts:酵母抽提物的特点
Yeast extracts are a perfectly natural source for savory flavor and a seasoning for use in a wide variety of food formulations. Yeast extracts are produced by a process called autolysis, which is essentially a self-digestion of the yeast, which requires the mediation of several endogenous hydrolytic enzymes. The process is generally initiated by the application of carefully controlled conditions such as temperature and pH, so as to achieve cell death with out inactivating the natural hydrolytic enzyme. At the end of the autolysis or self digestion, the entire material is centrifuged to separate the cell wall fraction from the clear supernatant extract. The later fraction which we refer to as yeast extract is concentrated to a paste or concentrated and spray dried before packaging to ensure its stability of the product. Some times, the entire digested yeast with the cell wall fraction is dried without separation and the product is termed an autolysate which food processors find use in certain specific applications. 酵母抽提物是很好的风味的天然来源,作为一种调味料广泛用于食品配料中。酵母抽提物是采用自溶工艺生产的,这是酵母自我消化的过程,它要求几种酵母内源水解酶进行作用。这个过程一般通过控制温度、pH值而开始启动,就是让细胞失活但天然水解酶并不失活。 在自溶结束后,将进行离心分离细胞壁碎片,得到清澈的酵母抽提物溶液。后者在确定它的稳定性后被浓缩成膏状或喷雾干燥。有时,全部的自溶酵母不经过离心去除细胞壁就直接干燥了,这种产品被称为自溶物。它有着特殊的用途。
The best-known extracts are derived from specially selected strains of primary grown baker’s yeast. However, similar yeast extracts can also be made from other species of yeast such as torula yeast (Candida utilis) grown on ethanol, Kluyveromyces marxianus grown on whey or from spent brewer’s yeast. 最知名的酵母抽提物来自于专门选择的面包酵母菌。然而,相似的酵母抽提物也能来自于其他的酵母如酒精发酵的圆酵母、乳清中生长的克鲁维酵母或废啤酒酵母
The key factors in choosing the starting yeast for processing are the price, availability of the yeast itself, and the properties desired in the final product. Baker’s, brewer’s, and Torula yeast strains serve as common substrates but in general, brewer’s yeast require a pretreatment prior to use. Yeast extracts have become popular during the last few decades in part due to their usefulness as a natural flavoring agent The amino acids have been of primary importance because of the characteristic taste profile they collectively impart, and most importantly, for their ability to serve as precursors for flavor development through Maillard reaction. 选择何种酵母原料来生产酵母抽提物的关键因素是:价格、酵母的可获得性、最终产品的所期望的特性。面包、啤酒、圆酵母可以作为原料生产酵母抽提物,但啤酒酵母抽提物要预处理后再使用。酵母抽提物在最近几十年已经作为天然风味剂广泛使用。氨基酸是很重要的,因为它们协同作用的呈味特征;而且他们能作为美拉德反应获得风味的前体物质。
Heat treatment plays a very important role in the production of flavor compounds in yeast extracts. These heat-induced changes in an aqueous phase are caused by complex thermal reactions between proteins, amino acids, carbohydrates, fats, organic acids, vitamins, etc. The process is referred to as non-enzymatic browning or Maillard reaction, named after the discoverer. This reaction which in reality is a complex system of reaction pathways, is important in developing the desirable aroma and non-volatile savory taste chemicals of cooked, roasted, fried or baked foods. Browning and aroma formation accompanying such heat processing are essentially caused primarily from the reaction of carbonyl groups of reducing sugar or related carbonyl compounds with free amino groups of amino acids or peptides. These are precursors generally present in yeast extracts and almost all savory food systems prior to heat processing. The variety of aroma compounds, which can arise from the Maillard reaction generally, varies both in number and complexity based on the reaction conditions. 在各种食品的风味调和中,热处理扮演了一个重要角色。液相中的热导致了蛋白质、氨基酸、碳水化合物、脂肪、有机酸、维生素之间的复杂的化学反应。这个进程叫非酶褐变或美拉德反应(以它的发现者命名)。这个反应是复杂的,并且对于开发期望的气味和煮、烤、炸、烘食品中不挥发的味道是很重要。还原糖或其他羰基化合物的羰基与游离氨基酸或多肽中的氨基在热作用下褐变或生成香气。这些物质一般在酵母抽提物中存在,且几乎所有的风味食品加工中都有热处理工艺。各种不同条件的复杂的反应生成了香味物质。
It is the taste that is the most influential in determining how delicious a food is. Conventionally, it has been thought that our sense of taste is comprised of four basic, or ‘primary’, tastes, which cannot be replicated by mixing together any of the other primaries: sweet, sour, salt and bitter. However, it is now accepted that umami is actually the fifth primary taste and the word of umami is now used internationally to describe the taste elicited by glutamate, 5’- GMP and 5’-IMP. The presence of glutamic acid and its flavor enhancing sodium salts thus serve an added advantage to those who use yeast extracts in product formulations. Certain peptides are also known to provide brothy character in soups and gravies and enhance certain targeted flavors. 决定食物有多可口的最具影响力因素是它的味道。一般来说,我们的味觉是由四个基本的、或“主要”味道:甜、酸、盐和苦组成的。它们不可能由其他的味道混合形成。然而,现在普遍认为“umami”实际上是第五个基本味道。Umami(鲜味)这个词,现在是国际通用的描述谷氨酸,5 ‘ – GMP和5 ‘ -IMP的味道的词语。谷氨酸和它的钠盐具有风味强化作用,这是在产品配方中使用酵母抽提物的另一个优点。某些多肽也可提供肉汤的味道特征和增强某些特定的口味。
It was K. Ikeda who first coined the word umami in 1908 to identify the distinctive taste of glutamate isolated from gluten. There is no English word synonymous with umami. However, the closest related terms are savory, meaty and broth-like. Because umami was originally a Japanese term, it is often thought to describe a unique, oriental taste familiar only to the Japanese and other Asians. It was not until 1913, when Ikeda’s protégé Dhintaro Kodama completed his studies on bonito flakes that the role of inosinate in umami was clarified. The identification of the third element in umami which was 5’-guanylate had to wait until Akira Kuninaka’s studies in 1960. The same year saw it extracted from the broth of mushroom, shitake. 1908年,K. Ikeda首先创造了umami这个词。用以鉴别从麦麸中分离的谷氨酸盐的特色味道。这不是一个英语词汇。最接近的的词汇是savory(可口的), meaty(肉味) 和 broth-like(似肉汤味).因为umami来源于日本的词语,它常常被认为是形容一种独特的、仅仅是日本人和亚洲人熟悉的味道。直到1913年。Ikeda的学生Kodama完成了他对鲣鱼片的研究,呈现Umami味道的一个重要物质肌苷酸盐被分离出来。Umami的第三个物质是鸟苷酸盐,它直到1960年才被Akira Kuninaka鉴别出来。同年鸟苷酸盐也从香菇罐头汤中提取出来
The yeast extracts described earlier are generally considered more as flavoring agents rather than enhancers because its – nucleotides. In a typical autolysisfinal extracts lack the flavor enhancing 5 -nucleotides because yeast does notprocess, nucleic acids are converted to 3 -nucleotides.have the necessary enzymes to convert RNA to flavor enhancing 5 早期,酵母抽提物一般被看成是风味物质而不是风味强化剂,因为它缺乏风味强化物质5′-核苷酸。在典型的自溶工艺中,核酸被转化3′-核苷酸。因为酵母不含有将RNA转化为具有风味强化能力的5′-核苷酸的酶。
The type of flavor enhancing yeast extracts that are currently marketed have the -IMP and the-GMP and 5-nucleotides, 5flavor enhancing properties of the two 5 glutamate formed by the hydrolysis of proteins in the yeast. These yeast-based flavor enhancers are known to give an additional boost to the overall flavor of a food system including salt perception, green herb and brown spike notes and spice heat. Most of all, flavor enhancers in yeast extracts contribute to the ‘umami,’ the 5th basic taste that is often described as savory or brothy. 目前市售的风味增强的酵母抽提物是含有两种核苷酸(GMP和IMP)和酵母蛋白质水解成的谷氨酸的产品。已知基于酵母的风味强化剂能够提升食品中所有的风味如食盐的咸味、中草药的青涩、烧焦味的刺激、香辛料的辣味等。除此之外,酵母抽提物的风味增强剂能提供鲜味–即高核苷酸的味道–这也常常被描述为鲜美味和肉汤味。
The flavor enhancing effect of umami substances on the palatability of different types of foods has been extensively investigated. The most important phenomenon exhibited by such flavor enhancing compounds is their ability to show synergy -IMP and glutamate. This type of synergy, not common to other-GMP, 5between 5 taste attributes, is one of the most remarkable properties, common to these flavor potentiators. 鲜味物质的风味强化作用是各种食品变得可口,这是已经被广泛地研究了。最重要的现象是风味增强物质I+G和谷氨酸盐的协同增效作用。这种效果不同于其他味道,是这类风味物质最显著的特点。
-I+G flavor-enhancing nucleotides have the abilityYeast extracts containing 5 to not only provide the enhancement of the savory flavor system but also to contribute the basic flavor building blocks that can mimic the nondescript savory background taste profile, traditional to homemade foods. Product designers often add yeast extracts, perhaps with HVP to vegetarian products such as soy-based burger patties or chicken substitute nuggets and fingers to mimic the savory flavor profile of their meat counterparts. (Fig 15) These yeast-based ingredients contributing naturally occurring glutamic acid and flavor enhancing -nucleotides do not require additional labeling. These yeast extracts may5 simply be labeled as ‘Autolyzed Yeast Extracts’ (USDA) or as ‘Yeast Extracts’ (FDA). 含有I+G风味增强剂的酵母抽提物不仅能增强食品的风味还能给手工制作的传统食品带来基本的味道。产品制作者将酵母抽提物也许还有HVP加入到素食食品如大豆为原料的汉堡肉饼或炸鸡替代品中,以模仿肉的风味。这种含有天然谷氨酸和I+G的酵母调味料不需要外附加标签。这些酵母抽提物一般被简单标注为“自溶酵母抽提物(USDA)”或“酵母抽提物(FDA)”
Modern food processors utilize these flavorings and all the technical resources available at their disposal to skillfully generate the proper balance in the final savory character of their culinary creations. , 现代食品生产商熟练地运用这些风味料和所有资源在最终产品中来产生适当的风味。
3、Advantages in the use of yeast extracts:酵母抽提物应用优势
In recent years there has been some decline in the HVP usage due to reports that it is carcinogenic. This has been due to the detection of certain chemicals called 3-MCPD (3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol) and 1,3-DCP (1,3-dichloro-2 propanol), which may be formed by the reaction of chlorides with lipids during cooking. 最近HVP的用量有些下降,因为它被报道出有致癌性。这是因为HVP中检测出两种叫3-MCPD 和1,3-DCP的化学物质,它们是在HVP生产中脂类与氯化物化学反应形成的。
. Admittedly, some of the trace chemical compounds found previously in HVPs have shown mutagenic properties As a result of this development, the market for yeast extract based flavour enhancers has improved markedly. New technologies developed lately have been able to bring the levels of these compounds below 5 ppb in the HVPs. Nevertheless, rumors and stories persist for long periods and many product designers seek to avoid or drastically reduce the level of HVP usage in product formulations. As compared to HVP, yeast extracts have not entered into any major controversy and is currently preferred over the former by the leading users of savory flavors worldwide, particularly in the soup/sauces sector. 公认的是,以前在HVP中发现一些微量化学成分有致突变性。具有风味增强功能的酵母抽提物已经显著地改进了这一问题。新技术已经能够使当前出售的HVP中的这些物质降低到5ppm以下。不过,这些传闻已经促使许多食品生产商避免在食品中使用HVP或者是极大地降低了HVP的用量。与HVP相比,酵母抽提物不会引起任何争议。当前,它已经优先于HVP在全球调味品生产中使用,尤其是汤料和酱汁的首选。
Additionally, in the US and Europe, the use of chemical MSG has fallen to disfavor among many consumers. According to a FDA’s report, MSG symptom Complex or MSG side effects can result in numbness, burning sensation, tingling, difficulty of breathing for asthmatics, etc, among those who appear to have affected by this chemical. Because of this, most multinational food companies with huge investments in brand values have chosen not to risk possible damaging publicity by reformulating their relevant savory products with appropriately chosen yeast extracts. Such extracts are known to work synergistically with the flavor components of the base food and even smooth out any harsh flavor notes which may seem objectionable to a taster further rounding off and balancing the overall savory character in foods. They contain strong flavor intensities offering low usage levels and thus relatively lower costs in formulating a wide variety of food products. 此外,在美国和欧洲,味精的用量已经下降了,失宠于众多消费者。据FDA的报告,化学味精综合症或味精副作用能导致麻木感、灼热感、刺痛感、哮喘呼吸困难等症状。因此,大部分的具有巨大的投资品牌价值的跨国食品公司已不再冒险损坏其公众形象,而是选择适当的酵母抽提物调整配方,这样的提取物风味成分协调,能够柔和任何尖锐的味道。它们也含有强烈的风味,因此广泛用于食品配方中,用量少,成本更低。
This glutamate is a vital neurotransmitter – a chemical which allows communication between neurons – cells in the brain. There are in fact glutamate receptors in every major human organ. Natural glutamate consists of two amino acids – glutamic acid and glutamine, which are partially bound up in the protein molecules of yeast, yeast extracts and other natural foods. In the body, these proteins are slowly broken down which means the glutamate is released gradually and can be absorbed naturally at a manageable pace. The free glutamic acid in yeast extracts are relatively low and of the concentration that will not produce a harmful spike in the body when consumed. 谷氨酸盐是一种神经传递介质–一种允许神经元–脑细胞之间通讯的物质。在每一个主要人体器官中都有谷氨酸受体。天然谷氨酸盐有两种氨基酸存在形式——谷氨酸和谷氨酰胺,它们部分以化合态存在于酵母、酵母抽提物和其他天然食品的蛋白质中。在体内,这些蛋白质慢慢降解,意味着谷氨酸盐逐渐释放出来,并能易于吸收。酵母抽提物中游离的谷氨酸含量相对较低,这个低浓度下对机体不会产生有害的作用。
On the other hand, pure MSG contains much higher levels of glutamate than occurs naturally in extracts or other natural foods. MSG is not bound in a protein molecule – it is free and is therefore absorbed by the body at a faster level than natural glutamate. If too much glutamate is consumed, the body normally pumps the excess glutamate out of the neurons and into the surrounding helper cells – astrocytes. However, if the levels of glutamate are too high, as occurs when the body ingests MSG, the body cannot pump out the excess and the neurons become over-stimulated and disoriented. An MSG sensitive person in that case experiences such discomfort when MSG is consumed with the food. 另一方面,纯粹的味精的谷氨酸盐含量远远高于酵母抽提物或其他天然食品。味精(谷氨酸钠)不是结合在蛋白质分子中的——它是游离的,因此它能够被身体以远快于天然谷氨酸盐的速度吸收。如果谷氨酸盐摄入过多,身体通常就会排除神经元中过多的谷氨酸盐,把谷氨酸盐释放到神经元周围的辅助细胞神经胶质中去。然而,如果谷氨酸盐浓度过高,上述过程还在进行时仍然摄取味精,机体就不能将过多的谷氨酸盐从神经元中排除,从而神经元变得过于亢奋和没有判断力。对味精敏感的人当食物中有味精时就会感到不适。
Yeast extracts made from baker’s, brewer’s or torula yeast have now become key elements in the development of most savory flavor systems. The major contributors from such yeast extracts are derived from the hydrolysis of macromolecules present in the yeast cell and their reaction products formed by their mutual chemical interactions, primarily during concentration, pasteurization and drying. 由面包酵母、啤酒酵母或圆酵母制成的酵母抽提物现已成为大多数调味品开发系统中的关键因子。 酵母细胞内的高分子物质进行水解,并在浓缩、灭菌中共同进行化学反应。从而获得了风味。
Yeast extracts serve as a good source of flavors as well as flavor precursor compounds that include amino acids, sugars, peptides, nucleotides and B-vitamins that are useful in the development of meaty, savory flavor. For this reason, yeast extracts are a key component that allows flavor houses to create savory flavors and top notes for a variety of savory foods through reaction or processed flavor technology. 酵母抽提物不仅是良好风味的来源,也是风味前体物质氨基酸、糖、肽、核苷酸、维生素B的来源。这些物质可以开发出肉的风味。因此,香精企业使用酵母抽提物为原料用热反应技术来创造风味。
3、Introduction of Yeast Extracts in Foods and Seasonings:酵母抽提物在食品和调味品中的介绍
With the greater emphasis on natural flavors in foods, there has been a revival of interest in yeast extracts. If product designers find certain savory nuances missing in finished products or they just want to boost up a weak flavor, or to introduce new flavor variations, they can now find yeast extracts to which is a natural food ingredient to fill this gap. Yeast extracts are generally used at 0.1 to 0.25% on a finished product basis. Yeast extracts typically intensify and round out flavors and provide intense meaty notes in appropriate applications. They are often applied in food systems, as they are capable of providing the missing links to look like homemade foods. Yeast autolysates which have less intense flavors due to dilution effect by the presence of cell walls, are also typically used at 0.5 – 1.0% in food formulations. 在强调天然风味的食物时,人们对酵母抽提物重新感兴趣。如果产品设计者发现在最终产品中某种味道有缺失或者想提升一个较弱的风味,现在他们发现酵母抽提物是一种天然的食品添加剂,可以用来填补这个空白。通常他们在终产品中的用量是0.1-0.25%。适当使用酵母抽提物可以强化和柔和风味并提供肉风味。他们常常在食品工业中使用,正如他们在家中制作食品一样弥补缺失的味道。酵母自溶物的味道比较弱,因为味道被自溶物中的细胞壁稀释了。它也能以0.5-1%的用量用在食品中。
Within the food industry, the key sectors to account for its high demand for yeast extracts are soups, bouillion, sauces, gravy, ready-to-eat meals, seasonings and savory snacks. Apart from these direct purchasers of yeast extracts and enhancers, flavor houses and seasoning houses can also be considered as demand sectors since they often add value to these products and market the resulting seasonings to the food producers. Yeast extracts are extensively used in improving the flavor characteristics of soy sauce by rounding of its flavor profile, reducing Na content and by masking any unpleasant notes. In addition, an impressive growing demand of the boullion sector is being explained by the presence of Wűrze and Marmite, two of the largest user-segments of savory flavors enhancers in Asia, Australia and Europe. 食品工业中,酵母抽提物能够满足汤、肉羹、酱料、肉汤、方便食品、调味、咸的小吃在关键领域的高要求。除了这些的酵母抽提物的直接用户,调料和香精工厂也会需求酵母抽提物,因为酵母抽提物能提高调味料的附加值,使得更易于出售给食品生产商。酵母抽提物广泛用于改善酱油的风味特点,它能圆润其风味特点、降低钠的含量,和遮盖不愉快的气味。此外,一个令人瞩目的日益增长的需求来自于Wűrze和Marmite,这是两个在亚洲、澳大利亚和欧洲最大的风味料用户。
All yeast extracts contain certain peptides and amino acids and some contain flavor enhancing 5’-nucleotides which are known to provide the brothy character to the aforementioned savory food categories. Additionally, desirable flavors can also be supplied by reaction flavor compounds that develop at high temperature processing. Yeast extracts also contain natural glutamate and certain other grades contain higher levels of flavor enhancing 5’-I+G. 所有的酵母抽提物都含有一定的多肽和氨基酸及某些风味强化物质5′-核苷酸,这些物质能够给食品提供一种肉汤的特征。另外,风味也能有高温反应生成的风味物质提供。酵母抽提物也含有天然的谷氨酸盐和特定的其他含有较多I+G的物质。
4、Evolution of Yeast Extracts in the US and Europe:欧美酵母抽提物的发展
The start of yeast extract production dates back to early 20th century. It was in 1902 that the Marmite Food Company (later Marmite Ltd) was set up in the United Kingdom. Their mission, then as now, was to produce yeast based nutritionally-rich product called Marmite with excellent taste. The basic production method has changed little since Marmite was first invented. Basically, the used brewer’s yeast is broken down to release soluble amino acids and proteins. This soluble material is then concentrated and filtered a few times before going through a unique proprietary process for flavor development. Finally, what ends up with is a yeast extract paste. The product is then blended with vitamins, vegetable and spice extracts to create the taste the world now knows as Marmite. By the time of the First World War it was included in soldiers ration packs. It also became a staple food in hospitals and schools. During World War II, Marmite became a dietary supplement in prisoner-of-war camps. 酵母抽提物的生产开始于20世纪早期。在1902年,Marmite 食品公司 (后来的 Marmite Ltd)在英国成立。他们的目标和现在是一样的,是生产以酵母为原料的高营养好味道的产品,名叫marmite。这个产品的基本生产方法从Marmite发明至今改变很少。基本上,他们将废啤酒酵母降解,得到可溶性氨基酸和蛋白质。在专有工艺获得特殊风味前,物料先进行一定的浓缩和过滤,最后再做成膏状产品。该产品混合了维生素、植物和香辛料提取物来生成世界闻名的Marmite风味。在第一次世界大战中,它成为了士兵的配给食品;它也是医院和学校的重要食品。二战期间,Marmite成为了战俘营的饮食补充剂。
With these humble beginnings, yeast extract business today has blossomed into a very lucrative industry providing a spectrum of savory flavors and seasonings primarily to the food industry. Although the early innovation in yeast extract production from brewer’s yeast started in the early 1930’s, the products were not well received in food formulation due to its inherent bitter taste. This was soon overcome by the use of baker’s yeast which is a primary grown yeast which is a much cleaner yeast than the brewers yeast that have the residual effect of hops. 伴随这个简陋的开端,酵母抽提物行业到今天已经成为一个充满利润的行业,提供给调味品生产中各种风味。尽管在二十世纪三十年代,啤酒酵母抽提物生产有了创新,但它不太被食品配方接受,因为它固有的苦味。这个缺点不久被面包酵母抽提物克服了。面包酵母抽提物是用初生的酵母生产的,它比含酒花残余物的废啤酒酵母纯净得多。
In the mid 1930’s Götz Ohly was the first to develop yeast extracts from primary grown yeast and he still lends his name to the company and the branded range of bakers yeast derived products. In 1961 the company was converted to Deutsche Hefewerke GmbH (DHW). Today, yeast extracts are made very extensively in Europe with production to a lesser degree in the US & Canada, China, South America and Australia. 三十年代中期,Götz Ohly首先开发出来用初生的酵母生产的面包酵母抽提物。他也用他的名字作为公司和名称和产品的品牌。1961年,公司转给了Deutsche Hefewerke GmbH (DHW)。今天。在欧洲,酵母抽提物广泛地生产。接下来是美国和加拿大、中国、南美洲、和澳大利亚等地。
Up till the 1960’s, the markets dominated with brewers and bakers yeast extracts in the form of paste and a lesser amount in the form of powder. With the advent of efficient dryers and improvements in the techniques of drying, more and more users of yeast extracts have preferred the powder over paste and today, yeast extract are predominantly available as fine powders or agglomerated or oil treated powders for convenience. These extracts were basically produced from bakers or brewers yeast using a simple autolysis procedure. The critical flavors were derived from the breakdown products of proteins and the reaction flavors generated during downstream processing. 六十年代,市场上占主导地位的是膏状酵母抽提物,粉状较少。随着高效的干燥设备的出现和干燥方法的改进,越来越多的酵母抽提物用户趋向于使用粉状酵母抽提物;到目前,良好的粉状或附聚颗粒状或包裹油利于使用的的粉状酵母抽提物已经占据主导地位。这时,面包和啤酒酵母抽提物基本上是简单的自溶法生产。决定性的风味来自于产品蛋白质的降解和下游加工中热反应生成的风味。
By mid 1970’s, the use of enzymes to enhance the autolysis process was first started in order to improve extract yield and flavor properties of the yeast extracts and to bring down the cost of production. This improved the free glutamic acid levels of the extracts thus making the products more acceptable in the application of foods and seasonings. An important development during this era was the use of special enzymes for the production of flavor enhancers such as 5’-IMP and 5’-GMP from yeast. This breakthrough made a significant impact, even though slow at the beginning, in providing a replacement for MSG which the consumer was beginning to monitor in the prepared foods they consumed. 七十年代中期,为提高酵母抽提物的产量并改善其风味从而降低产品成本,酶在自溶中被使用了。酶的使用提高了产品中的谷氨酸浓度,从而使抽提物更易于被食品和调味品生产所接受。在这个时期最重要的进展是使用酶来生成5′-GMP和5′-IMP。这个突破产生了显著的影响。甚至慢慢开始使酵母抽提物作为味精替代物加入到消费者关心的食品中。
5、Production and Producers of Yeast Extracts Worldwide, 2008. 2008年世界酵母抽提物的生产商和产量
In this section, I wish to now review the list of major producers by regions with details on their output of yeast extracts for the year 2008 and the forecast for the year 2009. This information is summarized in Slide 14 which indicates that the worldwide output amounts to approximately 124,000 tons for the year 2008 for the free market. In addition, 12,000 tons yeast extracts are produced primarily from brewer’s yeast for captive use. 这里,我希望按照区域回顾2008年酵母抽提物的产量和各大生产商情况。并对2009年作一预测。在幻灯片14中作了总结。2008年产量是124000吨。其中有12000吨酵母抽提物是啤酒酵母抽提物
Based on the estimated worldwide output of 124,000 tons of yeast extract for 2008, Table 6 presents the projected output for the coming year 2009, assuming a 3% or 5% increases in demand for the food industry. This would amount to a total increased need of 7,300 ton extract for an increase of 3% or 10,400 tons requirement in case of a 5% increased demand in which case the total forecast for the year 2009 would amount to an output in the 131,300 and 134,400 tons range. 基于2008年全球产量是124000吨,表6显示了2009年的预计产量,假设为3-5%的需求增长。这将计算出来7300吨的增量(3%增长)或10400吨的增量(5%增长率),从而2009年产量是131300吨到134400吨。
6、Trends for the Future将来趋势
Today, the food industry is demanding much more innovations on the part of the ingredient suppliers as a direct response to more recent challenges placed by the health-conscious consumer. These include: (1) no chemical MSG (2) no HVP (3) gluten-free (4) no trans fat (5) low Na, etc. Consequently, there is a great deal of research activity taking place with in the extract manufacturing community in response to these demands. 今天,食品工业要求在配料上更多的革新以满足那些对健康十分关注的消费者。这包括: 1、没有化学味精 2、没有HVP 3、游离谷氨酸 4、没有氢化油 5、低钠等等所以,在抽提物上开展了大量的研究工作来满足这些要求。
The Western World, which now produces and consumes vast quantities of animal meat may, in the future experience shortages that could result in dramatic changes in food habits. Additionally, consumers have now become exceedingly conscious of their health and this too has caused a dramatic reduction in the inclusion of meat in their diets. In response to these pressures and consumer demands, meat analogs are becoming increasingly popular, and as this occurs, production of meat-like savory flavors or process flavors will be of ever increasing importance throughout the world. 西方世界,现在已经生产和消费了大量的畜肉,在未来会经历短缺,这可能会导致饮食习惯显著地改变。此外,消费者已经变得非常关注健康,这也引起了饮食习惯中的肉的消费量迅速下降。在这些压力和消费需求下,肉的替代品正变得越来越受欢迎,类似肉的调味品的味道或热反应的味道的产品会在世界各地的不断增长。
The general trend for future is to produce yeast extracts that contain: 将来酵母抽提物发展趋势包括:
(a) Very high 5’-I+G (perhaps in the range of 15-20%) (b) Reaction flavors to mimic savory meatiness of chicken, beef, pork, turkey, etc. specially for formulating foods for vegans and vegetarians (c) Low sodium extracts for health conscious consumer (d) Extracts to imparts freshness to formulated foods (e) High natural glutamic acid in extracts for flavor enhancement (f) Cleaner products with less color (g) Product with minimal or no odor 1、很高的I+G含量(也许15-20%) 2、利用热反应技术模拟出鸡肉、牛肉、猪肉、火鸡等风味,尤其是用于素食者食物配料中 3、对健康关心的消费者的低钠盐的酵母抽提物 4、给予食品新鲜感的酵母抽提物 5、高含量的天然谷氨酸盐的酵母抽提物 6、低色素的产品 7、无气味或气味弱的产品
It is the responsibility of the food scientists, flavorists and product designers to develop savory richness in diets low in meat or low in salt in those diets that are rich in vegetable proteins. Currently, there is considerable interest to produce very high 5-nucleotide-rich yeast extracts for use in flavor enhancement. 食物的科学家,风味科学家和产品设计师的职责是开发富含植物蛋白质的低肉或低盐饮食的风味。目前,有相当大的兴趣集中于生产很高的核苷酸含量的酵母抽提物用作风味强化剂。
Current research is devoted more to the identification of character impact compound to savory flavor and to maximize the production of these flavor chemicals through reaction flavor technology. Understanding the kinetics of these reactions would be helpful to activate only the relevant pathways that would generate the desired flavors with out the release of undesirable flavors. In the future, we can expect to see further interest in model systems for both knowledge building as well as for practical use. 当前的研究投入更多来鉴别特征风味,并最大限度地提升产品风味的。了解这些反应动力学的研究将有助于相关方法的激活而产生想要的口味和除去不良风味。在未来的发展中,我们期望看到不仅是实际应用,而且更进一步建立知识模型。
The affects of “low sodium awareness” are also being seen in food service, particularly in the developed world. Accordingly, the food processors are under pressure to reformulate products and re-label packages to help consumers understand what they are eating. In response to these changes, yeast extract manufacturers are compelled to produce and market products low in sodium to stay in business. “低钠意识”的影响也在食品服务中能看到,特别是在发达国家。于是,食品生产者迫于压力重新改变产品配方和在产品包装上重新标注以便使消费者知道他们在吃什么。根据这些变化,酵母抽提物生产商也被迫生产和销售低钠产品以保持其业务。
The quest for controlled flavor release will continue to remain a high priority to those who are in the business of formulating prepared foods. The basic intention is to provide the fresh flavor notes that are reminiscent of fresh homemade foods. One approach that has not yet reached perfection is to add flavor precursors, which may include specially designed yeast extracts and protein hydrolysates, additional to flavorings. The product designers are aggressively making headway to take the best advantage of this approach. The hope is that such well-defined flavor precursors introduced into the formulation would generate the characteristic taste and aroma during the final heat treatment just prior to consumption to make the food resemble more close to freshly prepared foods. 那些正在准备食物时的生产者对于控制风味的释放这一目的将继续优先考虑。基本的意图是提供新鲜的风味,使人联想到新鲜的自制的食物。还未达到完美的一种方法是加入风味前体,其中可包括特别设计的酵母抽提物和蛋白酶解物、风味物质。产品设计师积极地运用这个方法,希望是这样风味前体引入配方将产生的特定的味道和芳香,以便使食物在最后的热加工前更接近新鲜食物。
A few well-known food research laboratories have come closer than ever before in acquiring control over the process to achieve flavor development through the application of model systems. These developments have set the stage for flavor chemists to utilize the power of computers to assist in steering reactions to generate definite flavors, important for new product development. This will allow the food research to gradually move away from “hit-and-miss” type approach to a more defined and predictable flavor design and flavor engineering approach in the future. 一些著名的食品研究实验室已经比以前更了解控制反应过程,在反应模型能达到需要的风味。这些已经发展到了这样的阶段:风味化学家运用计算机的力量, 协助指导反应来生成明确的口味, 这对于新产品开发是很重要的。这将使得食品的研究逐渐远离“碰巧”型阶段,而按照可预见的味道和工艺设计继续进行研究.
作者简介:Tilak Nagodawithana 博士从事酵母抽提物与调味品研究多年,现任美国Esteekay Associates 公司法人代表。


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